China's National Hygiene and Health Commission began construction of its first National Cord Blood Bank (NCBB) in the spring of 2019. NCBBs bank cord blood units, which are used for hematopoietic stem cell therapy, a life-saving therapy indicated for over eighty diseases. Investment in a NCBB will lower the costs of purchasing cord blood units and is a response to the significant need for improved access to this therapy for Chinese citizens. However, a NCBB faces two major cost problems: the upfront costs of financing a centralized NCBB are enormous, and NCBBs, on their own, are not fiscally solvent and risk closure over the long run. This paper conducts a review of the literature for comparative models of financing NCBBs around the world and applies those lessons to China. I conduct a cost-benefit analysis to determine the ideal number of stored cord blood units and illuminate how post-transplant hospitalization costs arising from complications affect the cost model. Finally, I provide a number of policy recommendations for a fiscally sustainable NCBB.